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Does Uv Light Kill Coronavirus According To CDC
Several compounds have antimicrobial activity, but for different reasons have not been included in the armamentarium of healthcare disinfectants. These include mercurials, cetrimide-chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hydroxide, β-propiolactone, and the Tego disinfectants.
A peroxygen-containing formulation had marked bactericidal action when utilized as a 1% weight/volume solution and virucidal activity at 3% but did not have mycobactericidal activity at concentrations of 2.3% and 4% and exposure times ranging from 30 to 120 minutes. It also needed 20 hours to kill B. atrophaeusspores. A powder-based peroxygen compound for disinfecting contaminated spill was strongly and quickly bactericidal.
In preliminary studies, nanoemulsions (comprised of detergents and lipids in water) showed activity against vegetative bacteria, enveloped viruses, and Candida. This product represents a potential agent for utilization as a topical biocidal agent.
New disinfectants that need further evaluation include glucoprotamin, tertiary amines, and light-activated antimicrobial coatings. Several other disinfection technologies might have potential applications in the healthcare environments.
Ultraviolet Radiation (UV)
The wavelength of UV radiation ranges between 328 nm to 210 nm (3280 A to 2100 A). Its maximum bactericidal effect that occurs at 240–280 nm. Mercury vapor lamps emit more than 90% of their radiation at 253.7 nm, which is near the maximum microbicidal activity. Inactivation of microorganisms occurs from the destruction of nucleic acid through the induction of thymine dimers. UV radiation has been employed in the disinfection of health equipment. Bacteria and viruses are more easily destroyed by UV light than are bacterial spores. UV radiation has several potential applications, but unfortunately, its germicidal effectiveness and use are influenced by organic matter; wavelength; type of suspension; temperature; kind of microorganism; and UV intensity, which is affected by distance and dirty hoses.
The application of UV radiation in the healthcare setting is limited to the destruction of airborne organisms or inactivation of microorganisms on surfaces. The impact of UV radiation on postoperative wound infections was investigated in a double-blind, randomized study in five university medical centers. After following 14,854 patients over 2 years, the investigators reported the overall wound infection degree was unaffected by UV radiation, although postoperative infection in the “refined clean” surgical procedures lessened significantly (3.8%–2.9%). No data support the utilization of UV lamps in isolation rooms. This practice has caused at least one epidemic of UV-induced skin erythema and keratoconjunctivitis in hospital patients and visitors.
Flushing and Washer Disinfectors
Flushing- and washer-disinfectors are automated and closed devices that clean and disinfect objects from bedpans and washbowls to surgical instruments and anesthesia hoses. Items such as bedpans and urinals can be cleaned and disinfected in flushing-disinfectors. They have a short cycle of a short time. They clean by flushing with warm water, possibly with a detergent, and then disinfect by flushing the items using hot water or with steam. Sing this equipment empties, cleans, and disinfects, manual cleaning is eliminated, fewer disposable items are required, and fewer chemical germicides are used. Microbiologic evaluation of one washer/disinfector demonstrated the whole inactivation of suspensions of E. faecalis or poliovirus. Other studies have shown that strains of Enterococcus faecium can survive the British Standard for heat disinfection of bedpans (80°C for 1 minute). The implication of this finding regarding enterococci’s potential to survive and disseminate in the healthcare environment is debatable. These devices are available and used in many states in the U.S.
Surgical instruments and anesthesia equipment are more challenging to clean. They are run in washer-disinfectors on a longer period of approximately 20–30 minutes with a detergent. This equipment also disinfects by hot water at about 90°C.